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How do you become an Astronaut? Who can become an Astronaut?


Are you dreaming of being an astronaut? Would you like to spend your days exploring the stars? Find out how you can pursue a career in the space industry!

No spacewalk has been made since Neil Armstrong, the first man to set foot on the Moon in 1969. Now we have the International Space Station, we plan to send manned missions to Mars, we have telescopes that can see beyond our Solar System, and agencies and private companies around the world aim to transport people into space.

If you want to explore space and see it as a career, you couldn’t have picked a better time, especially given the number of private space tourism companies that want to send people above the Earth’s surface.

The path to becoming an astronaut is seriously arduous. A career in the astronaut profession is not an easy one, and you will be entering an arena where the best compete fiercely. The Space industry is where it’s most important to digest everything taught in school as much as possible. If you don’t have a solid background in science and math and you’re not strong in these two areas, many doors will be slammed in your face. It sounded a little frustrating, but it’s the truth.

If your grades are good in college, you stand a chance. Space is one of the most exciting industrial areas in the Solar System, filled with new developments and new inventions happening regularly.

Let’s take a look at the Astronaut profession, which is one of the great jobs in the space industry. Just below this post, you will find information about other space professions.

Astronaut: Taking the next big step for humanity

Astronauts have a common and clear purpose. This goal is to dive into the darkness of Space and discover more information about the universe for humanity. The astronaut profession is potentially the most exciting and certainly the best known of all the professions in the space industry.

To become a NASA astronaut, you must first be a US citizen. The European Space Agency ESA for short only recruits citizens of the European Union, and the Russian space agency works with Russian citizens (Russians call astronauts cosmonauts ). Moreover, this entire space demands very high standards in candidates from the agency.

The cost of training an astronaut is very high, so agencies need to find the best people in the first place.

You need to know that the profession of an astronaut is not a profession you can learn at the technical university you are studying, and it takes years of preparation for a successful candidate to be sent into space. Even when preparations to become an astronaut are over, flight opportunities are limited.

There are two types of astronauts: pilots and mission specialists

A career as an astronaut is a huge reward for those who excel in the astronaut process. There are two types of astronauts: pilots and mission specialists. Suitable for both types of Astronauts, people learning and taking action. Astronaut Pilots fly spacecraft and dock to the International Space Station or a satellite that needs maintenance. When choosing Astronaut Pilots, they are usually chosen from the armed forces, especially aviator pilots have a great chance.

Mission specialist astronauts accompany the pilots and work on equipment repair and maintenance alongside various research missions. This profession requires being open to learning new knowledge and methods over the years.

Operational skill is also very important in this profession, as astronauts often have to find quick solutions when things go wrong, problems arise, and frightening moments in space. Space agencies want people who can let go of their emotions, think critically, and seek solutions when a problem arises. This requires rigorous training in several different areas.

The astronaut job is as fun as it is challenging. You’ll find yourself on Earth during training, and in space during missions in dire situations. On the International Space Station, you may have to spend a long time in weightless, in a tight place. It’s all part of the Hanka business.

Since an astronaut in space will see 15 dawns in 24 hours, his life does not last like the days on Earth. That’s why astronauts need to enter a new sleep zone and do some hard work in between. Working on the International Space Station could mean controlling experiments and maintaining instruments on the station.

Is it possible for the moon to rust?


Mars is called the Red Planet because its surface soil appears red. Now a surprising thing is happening. This is the reddening of the Moon, that is, the rusting of the Moon. Scientists expressed their surprise and explained that this is a very interesting development. Why does the moon turn red? What is the rusting of the moon? Is it possible for the moon to rust? Shall we call it the Red Moon now? The latest Moon studies and answers to questions are here.

What is the rusting of the moon?

The Moon is slowly starting to turn red, and could it be because of Earth? How does Earth’s atmosphere affect the rusting of the Moon? Shouldn’t there be oxygen for rusting?

Although not every celestial body is suitable for rusting, it is not normal for it to occur in arid or even in places with no atmosphere such as the moon.

Before we get into the rusting of the Moon, let’s take a brief look at how rust is formed. Rust, that is, iron oxide is a reddish compound that appears when the element iron meets water and oxygen. We can easily see rust on metal surfaces such as screws, wires, and doors, and we can see rust even further away on Mars.

We call it the Red Planet because the iron found in the soil of Mars a long time ago reacted with oxygen and water, causing the oxidation of the iron particles on it. But it is not normal to say this for the Moon. Because there is no oxygen for oxidation and it is not possible to find oxygen except in the frozen glaciers in the craters.

The situation is puzzling, and it takes elements like oxygen to rust, says Shuai Li, an assistant researcher at the Manoa Institute of Geophysics and Planetology at the University of Hawaii. So how can this be?

Top of the list among the properties of the Moon: The Moon has no Atmosphere

Earth can protect itself when solar winds blow because it has an atmosphere. But how will the Moon protect itself? Unfortunately, this is not possible as the Moon has no atmosphere. But very little Oxygen goes from the Earth to the Moon. Oxygen is carried by the magnetic tail from the Earth to the side of the Moon facing us.

Solar winds from the Sun hit the ground with hydrogen molecules in it, and this side of the Moon has hematite (a form of iron oxide). What’s more, at every full moon, the magnetic tail can block 99 percent of the solar winds and temporarily cover the Moon like a protective shield. During this time, rust may form on the surface.

But there still needs to be one more vital component for rust to form

Except for the frozen water found in craters on the far side of the Moon, there’s no water on the Moon, and it’s far from where most of the hematites are found in the ice,

However, the researchers suggest that fast dust particles hitting the Moon may have brought water molecules trapped in its surface layer to the surface, causing the water to mix with the iron. These dust particles may even be carrying water molecules on them, and the heat generated by their impact may increase the rate of oxidation.

This event shows that it will be the beginning of different researches about the Moon. Lunar exploration continues to increase.

The 10 most mysterious unsolved mysteries of the universe


For thousands of years, astronomy has been trying to answer questions in the sky and solve the riddles of the universe. But with every mystery solved, new ones emerge. Astronomers today think they have a pretty good understanding of the workings of our universe. The life cycle of stars, the evolution of galaxies is true that we will have much more information about the process, such as before a century. But there are still many unanswered questions and new ones continue to emerge.

Some of the mysteries of this universe seem to break the accepted rules of the universe. But whether they are, we don’t know until the mystery is solved. Although it takes some time to reach a solution, most of the time we can achieve this. For example, when the ” star that shouldn’t be ” or the rectangular galaxy LEDA 074886, named SDSS J102915+172927, was discovered, scientists joined forces to try to learn more about these celestial bodies with various observation techniques and to understand why they didn’t fit the traditional patterns.

Some mysteries require more patience. For example, if new photos of Miranda, the moon of Uranus, were taken, we could learn more about its turbulent past, but unfortunately, no probe will be sent to Uranus anytime soon.

We will also have to wait for new techniques and new spacecraft to be developed to unravel the mysteries of the Sun’s corona. The “dark matter” that permeates the entire cosmos is still frustratingly obscure.

Perhaps the most exciting mysteries are those that arise unexpectedly, such as dark energy accelerating the expansion of the universe. Thirty years ago, astronomers didn’t even know about such a puzzle, but now dark energy is one of the hottest topics in the field. Discoveries like these help us better understand not only space but also our place in it.

1. Most of the universe is lost

Astronomers face a mystery that undermines much of what we think we know about the universe. We once thought that two substances dominated the universe: normal matter called ” baryonic matter ”

But in the late 1990s, cosmologists discovered something unexpected. The expansion of the universe was supposed to slow down due to the gravitational pull of the materials in the universe, whereas the expansion was accelerating. Evidence for this comes from supernova explosions in galaxies billions of light-years from Earth. Judging by previous cosmic expansion patterns, these explosions are fainter than expected.

The one responsible for this is called ” dark energy ” and it is thought that 70% of the universe is made up of dark energy. We don’t know exactly what dark energy is, but perhaps the most intriguing and even worrying aspect of the discovery is that dark energy seems to be increasing. Up until 7.5 billion years ago, expansion was slowing down. Then the force of dark energy overcame the gravitational pull and the expansion started again.

Some scientists suggest that if dark energy continues to grow, billions of years later it will become so powerful that it will shatter galaxies, stars, and even particles of matter. In this case, our universe may end with the ” Great Rupture “.

2. Impossible stars

In 2011, scientists at the European Southern Observatory discovered a strange star: SDSS J102915+172927, located 4,500 light-years from Earth in the constellation Leo. Named the Caffau Star, the mass of this star is about four-fifths the mass of the Sun. Almost all of its mass is made up of hydrogen and helium, the two lightest elements in the universe. These two elements make up 99.99993% of the star’s composition. Heavier elements (metals) are almost nonexistent.

Such pure and light a star, the longer the 13 billion years ago, the Big Bang that Big Bang ‘from the rest must be made up of raw cosmic material. The problem is that according to accepted models of star formation, this star should never have formed.

For protostar clouds to create enough gravity to collapse and form stars, they must either contain more metal than Caffau’s Star or have a greater mass than it. So small, low-density stars like this shouldn’t exist.

3. Miranda’s secret

Passing by the planet Uranus in 1986, Voyager 2 took pictures of the planet’s moon Miranda. Given the variety of surface features on this small moon, Miranda breaks the rule that small objects show no geological activity. Astronomers have nicknamed the moon the “Frankenstein moon,” which appears to have been torn apart and reassembled, perhaps by an ancient planetary collision.

However, there is a problem with this theory. Miranda is orbiting so close to Uranus that if it had been completely disintegrated, it would never have come together again. That’s why some scientists think Miranda was shaped by being pulled by enormous tides.

4. Rectangular galaxies

According to the laws of orbital mechanics, stars always draw elliptical orbits under the influence of gravity. Therefore, when they come together in large groups, they form either flat disc-like spirals or ball-shaped ellipticals. It must be impossible for galaxies to have sharp rectangular corners, but still, astronomers have found several such rectangular galaxies.

For example, LEDA 074886 in the constellation Eridanus is a small, rectangular galaxy embedded in a nearby galaxy cluster. The real question is whether this shape is a long-lasting structure or a temporary coincidence. Examining it with the giant Japanese Subaru telescope, astronomers think the latter option is more likely, where the collision and merger between the two galaxies might have scattered stars, creating the current box-like array and triggering a wave of star formation at the new center.

5. Orphan planet

By the standard definition, a planet is a celestial body of significant mass orbiting a star, consisting of debris from the birth of a star. So how come some planets are wandering alone in space, far from the stars?

Astronomers have discovered several such planets. The closest and most interesting is the catalog name CFBDSIR J214947.2 040308.9.

First spotted in 2012, this orphaned planet is about 100 light-years away in the vibrant AB Doradus group (a cluster of young stars). A gas giant, probably much heavier than Jupiter, with a surface temperature of around 400 degrees Celsius. It’s still hot, either due to events in its formation or perhaps due to its internal energy source driven by gravitational contraction. Far from the stars to reflect the light of any star. We were able to detect it thanks to the infrared radiation on its surface.

Like all orphan planets, astronomers aren’t sure how they formed. Maybe it started life orbiting one star, then got too close to another star and was thrown away. Or, if formed from the same nebula as the surrounding star cluster, it may not be a planet but a “brown six dwarf star”.

6. The search for dark matter

Since the 1930s, astronomers have been aware that there is much more to the universe than we can see. Normal (baryonic) matter interacts with light and other forms of electromagnetic radiation. Stars emit visible light, hot gases emit X-rays, and even the coldest matter in the universe emits radio waves and infrared light. Clouds made of this type of matter also absorb radiation passing through them.

But another class of matter completely ignores light. This matter, called ” dark matter, ” is completely transparent to all forms of radiation. It only betrays itself by its gravitational effect on visible objects around it (eg, by influencing the orbits of stars in galaxies and galaxies within galaxy clusters).

More recently, astronomers have developed techniques that allow mapping the distribution of dark matter through ‘ gravitational lensing’ (a method of bending light waves passing near large concentrations of matter).

The findings show that dark matter is six times larger than visible matter. But what is the content of this substance? ” Massive compact halo object ” (which can not be detected until the dark and normal matter in uninspiring form, eg. Orphan planets and black holes) was supposed to enlighten this issue, but our telescopes evolved was understood to be available in sufficient quantities of these objects.

7. The corona of the Sun should not be hotter than its surface

The Sun’s visible surface is one of the Sun’s coldest regions. Its average temperature is 5,500 degrees Celsius. However, as you descend towards the core, the temperature rises to 15 million degrees.

We can only see the thin outer atmosphere of the Sun, called the “corona”, from Earth during a solar eclipse. Surprisingly, this corona can quickly rise to 2 million degrees. This massive temperature rise is taking place in a 100-kilometer-thick “transition zone”, and solar physicists still don’t know what triggers it.

Imaging technologies at NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory are helping to map both phenomena in detail. In this way, he may soon solve this conundrum. The Parker Solar Probe, launched in 2018, will also attempt to study the corona.

8. Unpredictable pulsars

These collapsed neutron stars (dense cores of massive stars that went supernova long ago) direct intense beams of radiation into space through their strong magnetic fields. Thus, they create a ” cosmic lighthouse ” that, when viewed from Earth, appears to flash many times per second.

Most pulsars emit either X-rays or radio waves (or both), but a unique pulsar, PSR B0943+10, was discovered in early 2013. This pulsar emits alternating radio and X-ray wavelengths and can switch from one type to another within seconds.

According to astronomers, a stellar earthquake can cause such changes as the pulsar’s period changes velocity. But perhaps something more strange and unknown is going on.

9. Galactic balloons

There are two extremely hot gas bubbles stretching 50,000 light-years above and below the Milky Way. ” Fermi bubbles “, discovered with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope in 2010, are among the largest structures in the universe around us.

10. Origin of cosmic rays

Cosmic rays, high speed, and high energy particles from outer space. We usually detect them through the lower-energy particles they produce when they enter Earth’s upper atmosphere.

So what if GIPs aren’t the source of the highest energy beams? Astronomers are considering the idea that these rays are created by natural particle accelerators around supermassive black holes in distant galaxies.

If high-energy cosmic rays don’t create exploding stars and colliding black holes, astronomers need to come up with something much more powerful.


What kind of planet is Pluto?


Among the known features of Pluto so far, there are other newly discovered features.

Pluto’s warm heart

Our whole thinking about Pluto changed when New Horizons passed by Pluto in 2015. We witnessed it transform from a desolate, frozen piece of rock into an active planet. A heart-shaped region in the northern hemisphere was named Tombaugh Regio. Astronomers studying this region have found evidence of an ocean beneath the surface. Tombaugh Regio has abundant nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane ice.

This research shows that there is a layer of gas hydrate (ice-like frozen gases trapped in molecular water) insulating this region of Pluto. This layer prevents the interior areas from freezing. Oceanic planets are an interesting research topic in the Solar System, as they provide the basic environment for the origin of life.

The planetary debate has started again. Pluto was considered a planet until 2006

On April 29, 2019, an unofficial vote was held in favor of reinstating Pluto as a planet. Rankings Alan Stern (New Horizons project) and Ron Ekers (former president of the International Astronomical Union) joined names like experts on the subject.

In 2006, the International Astronomical Union removed Pluto from planetary status. One of the criteria for being a planet was that the circumference of its orbit was empty. Pluto’s orbit did not meet this requirement, as it intercepted Neptune’s orbit. After much discussion on the subject in the 2019 vote, Stern took the floor and argued that Pluto is a world with oceans, mountains, and glaciers.

He underlined that in the region after Neptune, it would not be possible to create an open orbit, since the distance from the Sun is too much. After the discussion, voting took place. While 30 people wanted to keep Pluto as a dwarf planet, 130 said it should be considered a planet again.

Ammonia makes Pluto look young

“Pluto’s system complexity, geology, moons, and atmosphere were beyond our wildest estimations.”

Ammonia is one of the building blocks of life and a compound that astronomers love to see. When it is detected in other celestial bodies, a study is started immediately on whether that place supports life.

Of course, it’s very difficult for Pluto to support life as we know it, for other reasons. It’s small in size, very far from the Sun, has no atmosphere… The list goes on and on, but ammonia still draws the attention of astrobiologists.

” Ammonia is a fragile molecule, ” says Cristina Dalle Ore of NASA’s Ames Research Center. It is destroyed by cosmic rays and ultraviolet radiation. So, finding traces of it on the surface indicates that it has been there for several million years, ” he says. So, there is some kind of geological activity that causes ammonia to rise to the surface. This could be due to volcanic eruptions, active vents, or whatever connection exists between the upper crust and the ocean below. Currently, studies are focusing on identifying where this ammonia comes from.

Pluto’s past and future

Since Pluto is very, very far from us, there isn’t much research on it. For a long time, it was observed with telescopes on Earth. The most detailed map of the dwarf planet was made with the Hubble Space Telescope between 2002 and 2003. This was not enough for NASA. That’s why a space probe was sent to Pluto.

This mission, called New Horizons, began on January 19, 2006. It traveled through space for nine years and reached Pluto in July 2015. Pluto passed within 12,500 kilometers of the planet and saw an incredibly interesting geological structure. After analyzing the incoming data in detail, the New Horizons team suggested that there may be an ocean under the earth’s crust. This is a theory that explains how water came into existence in the Solar System.

After the information received from New Horizons, scientists became more interested in Pluto. A helper may come to NASA very soon in this regard. The “Pluto Hopper” planned to be produced by the Global Aerospace Corporation (GAC) offers new horizons for researching the dwarf planet. The goal of this space mission is to land a spacecraft on Pluto’s surface in an inflatable balloon. The only problem here is that Pluto’s atmosphere is extremely thin. Pluto’s gravity is about six percent of Earth’s.

When the spacecraft arrives at Pluto, its speed will be very high and will need to be slowed down considerably. Landing a vehicle on the surface of a tiny dwarf planet is a challenge, but not impossible. The spacecraft ‘ Pluto Hopper ‘ that will take us back to Pluto is still in the design phase.

What is Gravity? Why are gravitational waves important?


What is Gravity?

Astronomers observe the universe across the electromagnetic spectrum, using optical and radio frequencies. Since the emissions of each of these frequency ranges provide different information, we observe the celestial object of interest from a different angle.

Gravitational waves are different from anything else on the electromagnetic spectrum. In 1915, Albert Einstein, with his general theory of relativity, paved the way for a completely different view of gravity.

Rather than treating gravity as a force pushing or pulling objects with mass in different directions, he described it as a twist in space-time. In other words, gravity means that space (and time) around an object with mass is bent, and this bending determines how objects passing through space will move.

Although Einstein’s theory seems counterintuitive at first, we can observe the effects predicted by this theory right now.

Gravitational waves create a whole new way of observing the universe

For example, this theory says that time moves slower on Earth than on orbiting GPS satellites. This slowdown, however small, makes a difference. This is called ” time dilation ” as a result of the warping of space-time. If we do not make small-time adjustments in satellite communication, we cannot go where we want to go.

Another consequence of the general theory of relativity is this: As objects travel through curved spacetime, they cause ripples called gravitational waves. These waves propagate through space.

As we can hear gravitational waves. No further work is underway to understand what these waves are saying.

Why did we have to wait 100 years before we could hear the sound of gravitational waves?

First of all, these waves are very, very small, about one-thousandth of the diameter of the proton nucleus – so for them to occur on scales that we can detect, very violent events must occur.

In this process, it compresses space in one direction and stretches it in the other direction. The predicted frequencies of these fluctuations are within the human audible range.

In addition, they cannot be detected without very sensitive detectors.

The technology to capture gravitational waves is the most sensitive measurement system ever designed

Physicists use a technique called laser interferometry to detect even the slightest deviation in space-time. In this technique, a concentrated beam of light is sent in different directions, going back and forth between two mirrors before being sent to a detector. If a gravitational wave passes during all these travels, the distance between the mirrors changes by very small amounts, and this change is considered as the difference in the two signals.

In addition to the extremely weak signals from gravitational waves, the presence of a large amount of ambient noise to suffocate these signals makes it even more difficult to capture signals.

Above all, the path of the laser must be quite long. The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) is therefore designed to be 4 kilometers long in both directions.

Also, the detectors must be suspended in the air in order not to be affected by the vibrations on the ground. What’s more, LIGO has two separate detectors to avoid being fooled by misleading signals; one is in Hanford, Washington State, and the second is in Livingstone, Louisiana. Thus, it is guaranteed that the signal does not originate from a local source.

The gravitational waves observed with millisecond intervals from two detectors on September 14, 2015, were thus cleared of any possibility of error.

1.3 billion years ago, when multicellular life was about to emerge on Earth, two black holes orbiting each other were getting closer and closer. As these two dense objects got closer, they accelerated at close to half the speed of light under the influence of their common gravitational field. Thus, they created the perfect environment for the formation of gravitational waves.

Why does the earth need atmosphere?


What is the atmosphere? How does atmosphere formation occur? When did the atmosphere begin to form? Did life begin with the atmosphere? Planet Venus and planet Mars have atmospheres but why not like Earth’s atmosphere? Read on for the answers to these questions.

Why does the earth need an atmosphere?

Earth’s atmosphere is so vast that it can even affect the course of the International Space Station. But why did this gas blanket surrounding the earth form in the first place? In other words, why does Earth have an atmosphere?

To put it briefly, the atmosphere exists because of gravity. When Earth formed about 4.5 billion years ago, this molten planet had an almost non-existent atmosphere.

However, according to the Smithsonian Research Center (SERC), as the earth cooled, so did its atmosphere, often with gases ejected from volcanoes. This atmosphere, which dates back to ancient times and is very different from today’s atmosphere, consisted of hydrogen sulfide, methane, and carbon dioxide in an amount equal to about 10-200 times today’s.

The formation of the atmosphere began 3 billion years ago

About 3 billion years later, the synthetic system (photosynthesis) evolved, in which single-celled organisms use solar energy to convert carbon dioxide and water molecules into sugar and oxygen.

According to Frey, a dramatic increase in oxygen levels occurred as the photo combination evolved. In a sense, this was the biggest pollution event caused by oxygen, which is the source of life. Because this increase in oxygen levels gradually began to transform the planet. Currently, about 80 percent of the Earth’s atmosphere is nitrogen and 20 percent is oxygen.

According to the US National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), this atmosphere also contains argon, carbon dioxide, water vapor, and many other gases.

It’s good that these gases are in the atmosphere. The most important of the benefits of the atmosphere. Our atmosphere protects the Earth from the harsh effects of the sun’s rays and prevents extreme temperatures by acting as a blanket that surrounds the planet. Meanwhile, the greenhouse effect means that the energy reaching the earth from the sun is stopped in the atmosphere, absorbed, and released with greenhouse gases.

Stating that there are many different types of greenhouse gases, experts point out that the most important ones are carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane, and nitrous oxide. They also
underline that without the greenhouse effect, the temperature on Earth would be below zero.

Today, however, greenhouse gases are out of control. According to the US National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), as the amount of carbon dioxide that humans emit into the atmosphere increases, the greenhouse effect of the world is getting stronger day by day and the climate of the planet is getting warmer.

Our atmosphere is unique

Mars and Venus also have atmospheres, but these atmospheres are incapable of supporting life (or, at least, life on Earth).

Indeed, Venus’ atmosphere is mostly made up of clouds of carbon dioxide and sulfuric acid. The ‘air’ here is so dense and hot that a person can’t breathe.

According to NASA, Venus’ dense atmosphere of carbon dioxide traps heat escaping the greenhouse effect, making it the hottest planet in the solar system. The surface temperatures of this planet are high enough to melt lead.

UFO renames Unidentified Weather Phenomenon


UFO has no scientific explanation, but by creating such an atmosphere, it represents mysterious extraterrestrial objects. In short, there are aliens and the space vehicles they use while visiting the world are called. When you say UFO in Turkish, the concept of flying saucers comes to mind. Although it is not accepted scientifically, there is a branch of Ufo business called Ufology. People who examine the claims about UFOs are called Ufology.

Even though it was watched before 1950, after this year, especially in the USA, UFO (Unidentified weather phenomenon) observation reports started to increase, thousands of video recordings and UFO claims were recorded. UFOs have returned to science’s agenda, with the initial leaked and later approved by the US Navy and finally official publication by the Pentagon.

Gok our “unidentified aerial events” (UAP) show that there are many comments about the alleged videos: speculation about nature, birds, or balloons such as a wide range of visitors from outer space from ordinary objects spreading allegations. Of course, some UFOs take a religious approach and believe that they are visited by extraterrestrial life.

What does science say about UFOs?

Science is back on the subject, too, and there are moderates that instead of looking at the UFO incident as a shambles, it should be seriously investigated and defined.

In short, unidentified flying objects, which we know as UFOs, have always attracted people’s attention, but have been excluded by some as a fake/false/pseudo-science subject and have not been given enough attention.

However, the famous astronomer Carl Sagan called on scientists 50 years ago to give UFOs the attention they deserve.

UFO Identification is not impossible, but difficult

It is very difficult, if not impossible, to understand what this phenomenon group called UFO is. The reason why it’s difficult is that having their footage recorded doesn’t solve the issue. Meteorological conditions must be determined before and after the object is seen, the same images must be recorded by others at the same time, and the expressions of the pilots flying in that environment at the moment the objects are seen must be evaluated.

And unfortunately, this type of data is often out of the question. In short, consistent, meaningful explanations are required to comment on what these objects are. At this stage, interdisciplinary scientific research is necessary.

Suggestion 50 years ago

The proposal to scientifically investigate UAPs is not new. Since the 1960s, scientists have begun to show interest in this subject. Eventually, the US Air Force funded a group at the University of Colorado to study UAPs from 1966-1969. The report prepared by this team, led by Edward Condon, is known as the Condon Report.

To summarize the contents of the Condon Report, it did not see the need for further scientific research on this subject. However, this result did not satisfy some scientists and the public. In 1969, another discussion was started on this subject with the sponsorship of AAAS (American Association for the Advancement of Science).

Carl Sagan, professor of astronomy from Cornell University, J. Allen Hynek, professor of astronomy from Ohio State University, meteorologist James McDonald from the American Academy of Sciences, Robert Hall, and Robert Baker joined the discussion.

In the discussion, Sagan’s prediction was widely accepted: “The assumption that UAPs are extraterrestrials seems unlikely, but UAPs deserve scientific investigation .”

Why should science care about UAPs?

Why should astronomers, meteorologists, planetary scientists be interested in these events? Wouldn’t it be better to leave this issue only to image analysts and radar observation experts?

Scientists don’t think like that anymore. If a scientific explanation is required on a subject, those who say that this problem should be solved with an interdisciplinary approach are in the majority. Also, UAPs are a phenomenon that our planet is trying to solve, not just a single country. Many scientists around the world are pondering this issue.

So, what approach should be adopted?

To include this phenomenon in the field of mainstream science, it is necessary to conduct systematic research first. Here are the suggestions of those trying to solve the UAP issue.

  1. To increase the credibility of UAPs, it is necessary to prioritize data accumulation. A large number of independent research groups should conduct serious scientific analyzes on this issue. In short, a real scientist does not declare any phenomenon that has not been studied in depth unscientific.
  2. A strict agnosticism must be adopted. This is an extremely rational approach. UAPs represent surprising observations that need to be explained. This is a valid principle in all scientific discoveries. Moreover, the most important reason why UAPs are not taken seriously in the scientific world is that it is not known when and where they will reappear.
    On the other hand, it is not possible to talk about any pattern in an area where systematic data has not been collected. In astronomy, gamma-ray bursts, supernovas, and gravitational waves are similarly unpredictable. Still, these phenomena are accepted as natural phenomena in the evolution of stars. By valuing the testimonies and testimonies of people observing these phenomena, scientists can gather more data than might be expected.
  3. Astronomers can share the data they collect with the help of their devices and tools. Similarly, they also have tools to monitor UAPs such as radars, thermal and visual recorders.
    Not all scientists have to participate in UAP research. However, scientists who take this issue seriously can contribute to scientific research by establishing interdisciplinary teams. This is one of the life blood of science.”

What Is Serotonin?



Recently, the consumption of antidepressant and anti-anxiety drugs, which are recommended as a solution, has been increasing with the deterioration of mental health, the increase of depression, and the increase in stress. The purpose of these drugs is to increase the level of Serotonin and put the body in a state of comfort as soon as possible. The way these drugs work is to deceive the body. Therefore, repeated problems arise when it is not taken. It prevents the brain from using the serotonin secreted by the cells and tries to produce more serotonin. When serotonin begins to be produced in abundance, the body begins to be happy again. It’s actually like an easy math question.

If we know about serotonin, we may not need to do this kind of brain trickery. If you want to tell the brain to be happy, okay, calm, or even if you have a stressful job and live in big cities, you should know about Serotonin.

What happens in a serotonin deficiency?

Serotonin, called the Happiness Hormone, is a neurotransmitter responsible for communication between nerve cells. When the brain needs Serotonin, it produces it from the amino acid Tryptophan.

In the brain, when serotonin is released, the contraction of blood vessels begins. When serotonin decreases in the blood, it returns to its original state. For example, when the migraine attack started, the serotonin level was high, and as the pain started to decrease, the serotonin level decreased.

Serotonin chemical seems to be the basis of looking lively, happy, and always fit. When serotonin is deficient, boredom begins, the mood turns pessimistic.

Many factors such as hunger, stress, fatigue, insomnia, light, and medication can disrupt the serotonin level. Low blood sugar and stress are very effective in lowering the level of Serotonin. To increase serotonin, get plenty of oxygen, foods containing amines such as cheese, chocolate, tomatoes, and tangerines, and foods containing tryptophan amino acids such as milk and turkey meat should be consumed.

Serotonin also directs sexual orientation. It directly affects the functioning of many hormones. In 2012, male rats were raised without Serotonin, and no sexual orientation was observed when placed in an environment with female rats. But when placed inside male mice, these mice showed sexual orientation to both sexes.

For women, the situation is somewhat different. The estrogen hormone in women begins to decrease during menstrual periods. In addition, low levels of serotonin are also observed. This condition causes enlargement of blood vessels and can subsequently cause migraine.

Since serotonin directly affects the brain and mental health, it is related to appetite, memory, sleep, learning, and social life. Serotonin functions in the stomach and intestines and is also effective in regulating digestion.

In addition, Serotonin binds to receptors of dopaminergic nerve cells and reduces the secretion of another neurotransmitter, dopamine.

Does Serotonin Affect Depression?

With tryptophan amino acid deficiency, it is obvious that serotonin deficiency is seen when the brain cells do not produce enough serotonin. Subsequently, brain functions may deteriorate and mental problems may occur. According to experts, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorders, anxiety problems such as anxiety, anxiety, panic, nervousness, and serotonin deficiency can be seen.

But the level of serotonin in the brain cannot be measured live. For this reason, we cannot directly say that the cause of depression or mental problems is neurotransmitters or serotonin. But by looking at the blood values ​​of depressed patients, the level of serotonin can be measured. When compared to people who do not suffer from depression, it was observed that the level of serotonin was lower.

It is not known exactly whether serotonin deficiency causes depression or depression causes serotonin deficiency. However, many of the drugs used in the treatment of depression and other mental disorders, such as antidepressants, are based on increasing the level of serotonin in the brain.

Does serotonin affect sleep patterns?

Serotonin has a role in sleep patterns. It was observed that serotonin levels were associated with high levels of serotonin in waking states and low levels of serotonin during sleep. It is seen that Melatonin and Seratonin, which are affected by daylight, control the circadian clock, and while the serotonin level is high during the daytime, melatonin falls in the opposite direction.

Serotonin levels are at their lowest during REM sleep, which is the deepest part of sleep. Just in case, the brain, which is an intelligent system, actively keeps the serotonin receptors on the nerve endings ready during sleep. As serotonin begins to fall, levels of another neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the brain begin to rise. For this reason, people who use antidepressants do not dream much. The lower the acetylcholine level and the higher the serotonin production, the harder it is to dream.

How to Increase Serotonin Naturally?

Serotonin plays an important role in balancing mood, sleep cycle, and focusing the mind. Low levels of serotonin can cause depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive behaviors, and insomnia. For this reason, care should be taken to keep the serotonin level high in feedings before the evening. Problems in the production of serotonin in the body begin in people who choose an unhealthy and unbalanced diet model, do not do sports activities, use too much caffeine, consume alcoholic beverages, artificial sweeteners, GMO foods, ready-made foods and drinks with additives, do not have weight control and cannot overcome stress. mental problems begin.

Is it possible to connect the brain to the Internet?


Will we be able to connect directly to the internet without a pc, phone, or tablet with a brain-controlled internet or brain internet interface?

For those born in the digital age, it seems as if the issue of personal information on the internet is not an issue to be taken seriously. What if technology could transfer our thoughts directly to the internet without any transfer tools, filters or editing?

For some, this is a terrible scenario; it means both the disappearance of personal information and the complete disappearance of logic and reason that have barely survived on social media.

Is this technically possible? What does it mean as an application?

Overcoming the barrier between the brain and digital networks

Today, those concerned about the insecurity of electronic communications may find that their deepest thoughts can be read like an open book, and the concept of privacy is obsolete.

Although such a scenario may seem like science fiction today, it may be possible in the future. There are already developments in the medical field that allow brain neurons to be stimulated externally with electrodes.

Transdermal nerve stimulation is used for pain and movement control.

With spinal electrodes, nerves can be stimulated to provide leg movement in patients with spinal damage. And then there are smart prosthetic limbs, which users learn to control by simply thinking they’re moving as if they were natural limbs. We understand from here that the electrical information in our nervous system can communicate with digital devices.

Still, there is a long way to go before interfaces that connect directly between our brains and the network can become reality.

The first big problem here is philosophical as well as technological. What does it mean when our thoughts can be transmitted directly to an electronic network?

Can thought exist independently of expression?

Currently, thoughts are easily communicated because they can be translated into a common unit called language and word. What happens in the brain is mostly either nonverbal or pre-verbal.

If we could listen to the electrical activity in the brain, could we somehow translate the underlying thought?

But does this electrical activity involve meaningful thoughts, or is it like a meaningless
conversation, like the humming of a crowded party?

For more than a century, neuroscientists have been trying to decipher brain activity, with some successful ones among them. Sleep researchers are trying to distinguish between different states of sleep and wakefulness through characteristic patterns of electrical activity in the brain.

Functional magnetic resonance imaging is also useful in investigating which parts of the brain are active during which cognitive activities. But that doesn’t solve the problem of complex noises at a crowded party.

We know that neural networks and electronic networks can communicate with each other through electrical signals. Although this is
not a huge result, it is important because electronic systems can learn, so using an electronic limb well is possible with both the control system and human learning.

Considering that both parties can play a role in improving communication, we can say that many things are possible in theory. Suppose a brain interface is developed as well as a top-quality modem, how can it work?

Direct transmission of ideas to the digital network: Fields of application

While it is possible to derive intelligible thoughts from jumbled neural beats, it is of course very difficult. What can be inferred is also unlikely to have any communicative value since this knowledge is unlikely to rise to the level of ordinary words in an ordinary language.

Despite these difficulties, it may be possible to translate some kind of output with computer programs using machine learning and artificial intelligence.

Thanks to digitized brain outputs, psychologists can unravel the mystery of the difference between sleep and wakefulness. Some discoveries may also be made regarding the differences in brain function associated with schizophrenia, depression, and other abnormal states.

The brain is not linear like a DNA molecule but consists of many information processing systems that work in parallel. This makes it extremely difficult to record its electrical output. Yet even attempting to do so can provide clues as to how the brain functions as an integrated whole.

Over time, electronic simulators can be developed that mimic brain activity. In this way, we can get one step closer to understanding the holistic functioning of the brain.

Make Money From Home Easily With Freelance Site


In these periods, when the use of the Internet is becoming more and more widespread, job postings have also started to be given through online sites. 13 freelance sites are better than the other, where you can easily find a job and earn money. Since the beginning of the 2000s, web-supported job postings have been increasing day by day. At the same time, you can shape your business life according to your wishes with freelance working conditions, which is a great advantage for people who want to work without being tied to a single point.

What Does Freelancing Mean?

Freelancers work by definition; Freelancers are defined as working conditions that are independent of space and time, and that are completely free. One of the most important points of working as a freelancer is to work individually, without being tied to any person or institution. You can determine how you will work according to your work and work intensity.

What are the Advantages of Freelancing?

The advantages of working as a freelancer are that they will benefit people in every way. Since you will be the boss of your own business, the advantages of this working model are as follows;

You can set up a working environment wherever you want

As it is known, in a standard working model, you have to go to the workplace 5 to 6 days a week. This can get annoying as time goes on. At the same time, if your home is far from your workplace, you may have to get up even earlier than your working hours. You may also have difficulty in situations such as traffic and bad weather conditions. In freelancer working conditions, any place you want can be a suitable working environment for you. You have the opportunity to set the working hours and environment as you wish.

Customer Selection and Business Is In Your Hands

One of the advantages of the Freelancer working model is that you can choose the client you will do business with yourself. You can approve or disapprove the customer requests coming to the sites you are a member of, by adjusting it according to your intensity. Another advantage of the working model is; job choices. You can work in any field you want to progress in.

You Can Make Your Vacation Plan Yourself

While planning your vacation to incorporate companies, you need to confirm with your colleagues that you are in the same department. Otherwise, it is normal for your permit date to change. This is not the case in the Freelancer working model. You can go on vacation whenever you want.

You can determine the price policy yourself

If you think about how much effort you put into the field of work in which you will work, you can set the price you want for your work. No matter how long you work in corporate companies, the people who determine your wages are your superiors.

Disadvantages of Freelancing

Although working as a freelancer sounds good and has many advantages for people, you may also encounter various disadvantages until you settle down. The disadvantages of working as a freelancer are as follows;

High Risk of Not Finding a Job

Since the Freelancer working model is completely your working system, it is a long process to attract customers and advertise your company on the sites you are a member of. You may run the risk of not being able to find a job during this time. The better you advertise your transactions, the higher your job prospects will be.

You Should Invest in Freelancer Sites to Find a Job

Since it will not be possible to find a job in a short time, you need to make certain investments in sites that support the Freelancer working model. As a result of the investments you have made, your company may stand out or vice versa.

Collections Can Create Trouble

Since you are the boss, you have to deal with all transactions, good or bad. Collections are also the most important part of your business. After the transactions you will make, you may not agree with the customer about the price or you may have payment difficulties.

Freelancer Sites

Among the reliable freelance sites, the sites that will be suitable for you are as follows;


One of the most well-known platforms among freelance sites is the arm .com site. You can post an ad and see the incoming ads here, either through the website or by registering on the website. Membership is completely free. However, if you bid on any service, you must pay a certain fee. A maximum of 4 people can bid on the published job posting. The comments and scoring systems made for you after you complete the transactions are also very important for you.

Hire an Expert

Freelance sites allow you to benefit from different business lines and earn money. Hire an expert, if you upload the project you have worked on to the system, you can accept the offer by evaluating the offer you received.


Bionluk freelance site is among the most preferred sites. There are exactly 7 different categories in it. Among these categories are translation, social media management, web design, and voice-over. You can evaluate the job offers that come to you by creating your profile on this platform, filling in the reference sections, introducing yourself and your areas of expertise here. To become a member and open a profile, you need to pay a small amount.

Project Founder

Project Founder is one of the most important freelance sites that has proven its reliability and has reached a certain user level. You can create a business area for yourself through freelance sites by becoming a member of this site, where you can operate in many areas such as web design, translated texts, photography, and copywriting.


Weebly is one of the emerging freelance sites. The Web site allows you to work in various areas such as web design, software, advertising, and graphic design. You can create your own business by choosing whichever category is suitable for you.


Freelance sites may differ from each other in terms of working conditions. The R10 site is also a free membership platform. However, you must make the subscription by invitation. Once you have the invitation code, you can become a member as you wish.